Friday, January 21, 2011

Buku ICT score A


Keperluan kerja kursus

Kepada semua pelajar ICT, anda dikehendaki membeli

1. Fail putih 2 inci - RM4.50 satu
2. Plastik folder 20 keping - Rm4.00 satu
3. Buku Nok A ICT terbitan guru ICT Trengganu -RM5.00

Nota CD 1,2,3,4,5,6 pelajar download dan save sahaja dalam thumdrive. Setiap kali kelas ICT baca pada komputer sahaja sebab nak fotostat mahal hampir Rm12.00 lebih.

Pelajar juga kena ada thumbdrive untuk menyimpan softcopy. Jika membuat kerja dalam komputer makmal, mesti buat backup dalam thumbdrive kerana fail dalam komputer tidak selamat. Mungkin terdelete atau komputer rosak.

Dalam thumbdrive pastikan hanya fail2 berkaitan subjek ICT sahaja yg ada di dalamnya.

Tuesday, January 18, 2011

Identify the input devices used for text, graphic,audio and video


Any hardware component that allows users to enter

data and instruction into a computer




Keyboard, barcode reader


Digital camera, scanner, graphic tablet


Microphone, MIDI keyboard, digital voice recorder pen


Digital video camera, webcam, CCTV

State the units of clock speed measurement

When people talk about a computer’s ‘speed’, they mean how fast it can process data. In other words, this means the speed the computer can turn data into information.

Every microprocessor contains a system clock. The system clock controls the speed of all the operations within a computer.

The speed of the clock in measured by how many cycles per second the clock makes.


Mega is prefix that stands for million

Example à one computer that operates at 933 MHz has 933 million clock cycles in one second.


Giga is prefix that stands for billion

1 GHz equal to one billion cycles of the system clock

For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per second. This is what they a talking about if they say a computer is a 2.4 GHz machine. Its clock rate is 2.4 billion cycles per second.

In relation with megahertz, 1.0 GHz is equivalent to 1000 MHz

GHz is most often used as a measurement of a pc processor chip & power, with bigger numbers meaning more speed and higher price

Hertz & Second

The clock speed unit is measured in hertz.

1 Hertz = 121 cycle1 second"> 1 cycle / 1 second

1 Megahertz (MHz) = 1,000,000 cycles / 1 second 121,000,000 cycles1 second">

1 GHz = 1,000,000,000 cycles / 1 second 121,000,000,000 cycles1 second">

1 GHz = 1 000 MHz

State the unit of data measurement



Single Binary Digit (1 or 0)



1 Byte = 8 bits


Kilobyte (KB)

1 KB = 1024 bytes or 1 KB = 2 10 bytes



1 MB = 1 048 576 bytes or 1 MB = 2 20 bytes

1 MB = 1024 KB



1 GB = 1 073 741 824 bytes or 1 GB = 2 30 bytes


Terabyte (TB)

1 TB = 1 099 511 627 776 bytes or 1 TB = 2 40 bytes

Additional notes: A petabyte (PB) is 1,024TB. Indiana University is now building storage systems capable of holding petabytes of data. An exabyte (EB) is 1,024PB. A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024EB. Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is 1,024ZB.

Explain the function of ASCII code

DEFINITION: American Standard Code for Information

Interchange & was proposed by ASA in 1963 & was finalized in 1968.

ASCII is standard of 7-bit code used to represent characters, which include letters, numbers & punctuation marks

Function of ASCII

ASCII was established to achieve compatibility between various types of data processing equipment making it possible for the components to communicate with each other successfully.

ASCII enables manufacturers to produce component that are assured to operate correctly in a computer.


ASCII makes it possible for humans to interact with a computer. It also enables users to purchase components that are compatible with their computer configurations.



  1. Number 9 is typed using the keyboard
  2. Electronic signal in sent to CPU for the computer to process.
  3. Number 9 is converted to 00111001
  4. Computer finishes processing the byte.
  5. The software converts the byte back to the number 9
  6. Number 9 is displayed on the monitor screen

State the relationship of data representation : bit, byte and character

Data Representation

1. BIT

- A short binary digit is a smallest unit of data the computer can process.
- The binary system is a number system that has jus two unique digits, 0 dan 1 called bits.
- A bit is represent by number 1 and 0
- These number represent the binary system
-These correspond to the state of on and of, true and false,or yes and no.


- Byte is a unit of information built from bit
-When 8 bits are grouped together as a unit, they from a byte
- Bits and Bytes are the basic for representing all meaningfull information and programs on computer


- One byte is equals to 8 bit
- One byte represents a single character such as the number, the letter, or sysmbol
-For example, the capital F is represented by binary coding code 01000110 that can be understood by the computer system

-Computer does not understand letter or number or pictures or symbols.
-Computer uses a binary system to count as it recognizes two states that are 0 and 1
- Number 9 is represented by binary code 00111001
- Eight bits grouped together as a unit are called a byte
- A byte represents a single character in the computer.


Computer recognizes 2 discrete: ON and OFF that represented by 2 digits, 1 and 0

8 bits = 1 byte,

8 bits = 1 character

Draw the blog diagram of the information processing cycle


4 Basic operation called Machine Cycle

FETCHING : the process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from memory

DECODING : the process of translating a program instruction into signal that the

computer can execute

EXECUTING : the process of implementing the instructions in a program

STORING : the process of writing the result to the storage or memory


Fetching-Mengambil - proses mendapatkan arahan program atau item data dari memori/ingatan

Decoding- proses menterjemah arahan pogram menjadi isyarat untuk dilaksanakan komputer

Executing-Pelaksanaan -Proses pelaksanaan arahan di dalam sebuah program

Storing-Menyimpan - proses penulisan hasil untuk simpanan atau memori

Describe the information processing cycle which includes ipnut,process, output and storage


Information processing cycle of computer can be well described by the following points: (1) input, (2) processing, (3) output and (4) storage

  1. Input-entering data into the computer.
  2. Processing-performing operations on the data.
  3. Output-presenting the results.

User will input the data to be processed by the processor.

The storage holds databases, files & programs. The output devices present the processed data as useful information products for the user.

State the meaning of input, process,output and storage

1. INPUT - masukan

Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer. There are four types of input which are: text, graphics, audio and video.

Example of devices:

Keyboard, mouse, digital camera, joystick, trackball, touch screen, microphone, pointing stick, graphic tablet and scanner, barcode reader.

Sebarang data atau arahan yang dimasukkan ke dalam ingatan komputer. Ada 4 jenis data input iaitu teks, grafik/gambar,audio dan video

contoh peranti input seperti papan kekunci, tetikus,kamera digital, joystick, trackball,skrin sentuh, mikrofon,papan grafik,pengimbas dan pembaca bar kod.


CPU or Central Processing Unit/ Processor/ Microprocessor is an electronic component on a computer’s motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.

Example of devices:

Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor, AMD Athlon, G4, Mac

Unit Pemproses Pusat adalah komponen elektronik atas papan induk untuk menafsir dan melaksanakan arahan operasi komputer.

contoh :

Pengguna tekan papan kekunci no 5 . tekan darab. tekan 3. CPU akan proses untuk membuat pengiraan. Dapat jawapan, jawapan akan di paparkan pada skrin monitor.

3. OUTPUT - keluaran

The result of raw input data that has been processed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) into meaningful information.

Example of devices:

Speaker, monitor, LCD projector, printer and plotter

hasil akhir daripada input data yang diproses oleh Unit Pemproses Pusat menjadi maklumat yang bermakna/berguna.

contoh peranti keluaran : monitor, pencetak


data mentah : nombor 1,2,3 , 4 dan seterusnya
proses : 2 X 3 = 6
maklumat : gula RM2 sekilo. Beli 3 kilo. Jadi untuk harga 3 kilo gula, kena bayar RM6. Jika bayar RM10, kena pulangkan baki RM4.


A location in which data, instructions, and information are saved for future use.

Example of devices:

CDROM, diskette, hard disk, flash disk.

lokasi menyimpan data, arahan dan maklumat untuk kegunaan pada masa depan
contoh : CDROM,disket,cakera keras dan flash disk

Define computer system

A Computer System is defined as combination of component designed to process data and store files.

Sistem komputer adalah kombinasi komponen yang direkabentuk untuk memproses data dan menyimpan fail / maklumat

Learning Area 6 : Information System


No| Topic | Date | Signature

1.Meaning of data, information and information systems.
2.Usage Of Information Systems in education, business and management.
List the Information System Components
Interrelations between Information System components
Five types of Information Systems

6. Hierarchy of Data

7. Database management

8. Benefit of using database

9. Relationship between field,record and file

10. Primary key, foreign key

11. importance of primary key

12. Differences primary key,foreign key


14.basic operations of data manipulation

15.phases of system development